Saturday, March 14, 2020

Virtual Communities

Virtual Communities 1.0 IntroductionTourism is a business of providing tours and services for tourists. Nowadays, Tourism is important role in the world. Virtual Communities is necessary to develop in tourism. In here, I will create "Tourism of New South Wales" website to show the designing a virtual community. It is because New South Wales become one of popular place to travel around the world.Tourism NSW is responsible of New South Wales as communication within Australia and overseas. The organization also provides virtual area to let people share their tourism tips, holiday experiences and any special in NSW.2.0 PurposeThis community will design for people who enjoy coming New South Wales. It will allow users to communication and exchange their experiences. The main focus of this community is providing reliable and objective reviews about New South Wales, which community users could use as valuable and useful information if they want to come to New South Wales.Grey Shrikethrush (Colluricincla harmoni ca) in Dor...Aims of NSW community:Bring people together weather it is Australian or oversea and establish friendship between users.Provide a form for users to discuss about their feeling of NSW.Provide chatting room to share their experience in real time.Update on News and Event to give reliable and new information to users.Improve the users knowledge in NSW3.0 Compare between Virtual communities and Existing virtual communities.There are many similarities between the proposed virtual communities and current existing virtual communities such as tourism.nsw.gov.au/home/ However, there are some different between both communities:Focus on interactive between users who interesting travel in NSWUsing Forum and chatting room to share opinion.Regularly updated with News and Event about travel in NSW.Allow users can be members that easy to communication.Consist of wallpapers for users download.Provide Mailing List which regularly sends the...

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Immigration Law Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3500 words

Immigration Law - Essay Example The objection by Steggles Limited in the House of Commons to the incorporation of a proposal by Yarrabee Chicken Company Pty Ltd has a certain modern resonance. This is a gloomy prognosis of the effects of limited liability upon insolvent companies. Steggles appeals against both of those findings. The first question that arises on the appeal is, therefore, the question of construction of clause 7.4(a). The primary judge took into account the language of the clause considered in light of other provisions of the contract, as well as contextual considerations.The nature of the term, which the primary judge had implied into the contract, reflected that against that background, there is, no doubt, a major challenge for the legal adviser in communicating comprehensibly to those who conduct their business, through corporations, large and small, about the law, which those structures lie, created and which regulates their operation. That challenge remained enhanced when corporate structures l ie allied, as they often are, to trust arrangements. On the grounds and case law, which the judges on appeal decide, is that which lies implied in terms of fact. These, however, do not require to give ‘business efficacy’ to the contract as The fact that Steggles was free at all times to determine the number of chicks or the density of the batches to be delivered to the Growers was very much at the heart of the contract. It shows that the contract stood weighted heavily in favor of the commercial interests of Steggles.... The objection by Steggles Limited in the House of Commons to the incorporation of a proposal by Yarrabee Chicken Company Pty Ltd has a certain modern resonance. This is a gloomy prognosis of the effects of limited liability upon insolvent companies. Steggles appeals against both of those findings. The first question that arises on the appeal is therefore the question of construction of clause 7.4(a). The primary judge took into account the language of the clause considered in light of other provisions of the contract, as well as contextual considerations. The nature of the term, which the primary judge had implied into the contract, reflected that against that background, there is, no doubt, a major challenge for the legal adviser in communicating comprehensibly to those who conduct their business, through corporations, large and small, about the law, which those structures lie, created and which regulates their operation. That challenge remained enhanced when corporate structures li e allied, as they often are, to trust arrangements. On the grounds and case law, which the judges on appeal decide, is that which lies implied in terms of fact. These however do not required to give ‘business efficacy’ to the contract as The fact that Steggles was free at all times to determine the number of chicks or the density of the batches to be delivered to the Growers was very much at the heart of the contract. It shows that the contract stood weighted heavily in favor of the commercial interests of Steggles. 3With regard to this implied term issue, it is sufficient in our view to say that the flaws in the Growers’ approach to the construction of cl 7.4 lay revealed in the difficulties, which her Honour discussed, in particular, in

Monday, February 10, 2020

Consultant Review Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Consultant Review - Essay Example When we talk of fairness during the selection of officers for a special training or course, we come through several aspects which are faced by the selector which binds him to step aside the path of righteousness and select candidates on the basis other than merit and required attributes. Greed: This is the most common reason of corruption. Cash or kind is generally offered to buy the selector. Money is important to all and everyone wants to be rich. But service is more important than riches. We should know where to draw the line. Power: Having power puts you in a position where doing both the right and the wrong is in your hand. You need to utilize the powers entrusted in your hand judiciously. Remember, power also brings with it responsibility. Favoritism: The selector can be biased about a certain applicant who is a personal favorite of his. But this is not the time to shower your appreciation. You might be steeping over the right candidate for the job. Political and Bureaucratic Patronage: Believe in your self and do what is only and only right and then no one can force you to do something which you know is wrong. Do not yield to pressure. It doesn’t pay in the long run. But, this is one reason where you might not be in a position to say in the negative. Find alternate ways. Obliging nature: Don’t say yes when you want to say no. Every now and then we are stuck in such a position that although we know what is right we are compelled to take the opposite road. Police force is not your personal entity so do not let your personal nature come in between the path of your duty. Now, the question that arises is what comes under the term ‘unfairness’. What we might not do with an intention of being unfair others may cry foul at it. Employee Survey is one of a number of instruments used to look at fairness in selection. Perception of fairness at times correlates with other workplace issues. First and foremost what is required is a

Thursday, January 30, 2020

As You Like It Essay (Advanced English) Essay Example for Free

As You Like It Essay (Advanced English) Essay A sense of belonging can be founded through an individual’s personal aspiration to inherently connect with other people. The interaction and interconnectedness of relationships can be viewed as the most significant factor influencing an individual’s sense of acceptance within their surrounding environment and ultimately will determine the level of affiliation they can acquire personally. The comedic play â€Å"As You Like It† composed by William Shakespeare (16th Century), examines the idea of belonging to people and its significant influence over an individual. Similarly, Ang Lee’s film â€Å"Sense and Sensibility† (1997), correspondingly explores the perception of belonging through the interaction and contact with people and the relationships that are innately developed. Through the use of characterisation within both texts, the notion is thoroughly explored to exert a deepened understanding of belonging to people and how it can significantly influence an individual in most cases favorably. However, there are some instances where an individual cannot find a personal sense of acceptance within the relationships they withhold and therefore do not achieve a sense of affiliation within their social surroundings. The idea that people and the relationships they develop are the most influential facet in deciphering ones’ sense of belonging, is thoroughly examined within Shakespeare’s â€Å"As You Like It†. This is evident through the characterisation of Rosalind and the loving familial relationship she has with her cousin Celia. As they both were â€Å"bred together† and grew up within the court , â€Å"from their cradles† to adulthood, both Celia and Rosalind have developed an inherent familial bond for one another becoming â€Å"inseparable†. Shakespeare’ emphasised on the loving and devout nature of their relationship to the audience by demonstrating Celia’s absolute adoration for Rosalind over her own Father. This can be observed when Rosalind was banished from her home, the court, by Duke Fredrick (Celia’s father). Celia’s sense of belonging to her father was weakened as he betrayed her familial trust and so asked him, à ¢â‚¬Å"Pronounce the sentence on me my liege, I cannot live without her company†. The formality of the blank verse illustrates her detachment from her father and demonstrates the breakdown in their filial relationship. However, Shakespeare has used this to illuminate Celia’s loyalty and familial belonging to Rosalind, thus conveying their â€Å"inseparable† nature and the strong sense of affiliation between one another. (337) Similarly, in â€Å"Sense and Sensibility† the widowed mother Mrs. Dashwood and her three daughters are exiled from their home due to social expectations. However, even with the removal of their place of belonging it is their strong familial bonds and connections that allow them to find a sense of individual affiliation. This is evident towards the beginning of the film when they are introduced to their new home a small cottage in the country side which has just been juxtaposed with the Mansion seen in the previously. As they walk up towards the cottage their is a long shot that portrays the family walking towards the cottage together in a huddled group. Ang lee, has used this positioning of the camera and the actors to display the idea that it is within family they find belonging not place. This again supports the notion that belonging is most significantly founded within the people and relationships an individual withholds. (537) Furthermore, Shakespeare’s portrayal of the loving romantic relationship between Orlando and Rosalind additionally acts as a representation of how influential the contact between people can affect an individual’s sense of belonging. With Rosalind and Orlando finding themselves in the Forest of Arden due to the external influences of powerful men exerting their hate, such as Duke Fredrick and Oliver, both characters find themselves in similar circumstances. However, it is Orlando’s love that demonstrates his sense of affiliation to Rosalind through metaphorical language by comparing her to precious objects. He passionately declares, â€Å"No jewel is like Rosalind; Her worth, being mounted on the wind† which clearly exemplifies to the audience of his complete love for her. The use of extensive amount of romantic poetry and adoring tone is used to demonstrate their love towards one another. And that they find their sense of belonging with one another no matt er where they are and what place they are set, again emphasising the significance of contact between people becoming a poignant source of belonging for an individual. As each individual is intrinsically different, where relationships and interacting with other’s may offer satisfaction to some, others find greater fulfillment in self. Shakespeare clearly demonstrates this choice of belonging to self rather through the contact of other people, through the characterisation of Jaques. Being described as â€Å"melancholy† Jaques chooses not to affiliate with the people around him, and finds satisfaction in being alone. Jaques believes that â€Å"the worst fault you have is to be in love†. His cynical tone and attitude towards love and relationships demonstrate his choice not to associate himself with others. In effect, Shakespeare uses prose to enhance one’s insight into people who chose not to conform to belonging. This is a singular instance where an individual does not find a sense of belonging through the contact between people and the relationships developed, however, represents a lonely and melancholy life. Contrary to this, majority of the character’s within â€Å"Sense and Sensibility† finds a sense of belonging through the people they associate with. In ‘Sense and Sensibility’, Marian falls in love to a young suitor named Willoughby. However, Willoughby chooses not to belong to Marian due to social expectations, which essentially, caused personal consequences for his sense of affiliation. These consequences become evident within the last scene, â€Å"The marriage†, when Marian has been happily married to Brendan and the whole town is celebrating. There is a close medium shot of the both of them happily departing from the church, when the camera suddenly cuts to Willoughby up on a hill. Out from the town he is looking down on the celebrations with a saddened expression. Through the use of camera techniques and expression it becomes evident to the audience that he feels a sense of exclusion and detachment from the people he once was closely affiliated with. This further emphasises the consequences that can come to an individual when they chose expectations and society over the people and relationships they withh old. Nevertheless, the consequences of being lonely is welcoming to him and therefore, does not negatively affect him like Willoughby. Moreover, the interconnectedness and affiliation with people is the most significant factor influencing an individual’s sense of belonging or not belonging. Throughout the text â€Å"As you like it† and the film â€Å"Sense and sensibility†, this idea is thoroughly explored through the character’s represented by the composer’s and the relationship’s they developed, either familial or romantic. However, although one can find significant belonging through another person, some can chose not to belong, such as Jaques or Willoughby and by choosing not to belong it can create consequences resulting in a sense of loneliness. However, there are singular instances, like Jaques, where choosing not to belong to people can create self fulfillment in one’s self and a sense of belonging.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Gender Inequalities in Access to Schooling in Pakistan Essay -- Girls

Education is a precious thing that holds the future for all young human beings. It allows us to learn, to grow, and to become functional and responsible citizens of society and the competitive world. Without education, people will not be able to do the things that they want to in the future in order to advance their dreams to improve their lives and society. They will not be able to learn new things, new ideas, and new skills in order to advance the stages of human growth and development. They will be barricaded behind the barriers of ignorance, isolation, and despair. While students in the industrialized developed world have the right and ability to go to school and learn without barriers, it is not the same for the rest of the countries that are categorized as part of the developing world. Girls in developing countries such as Pakistan, do not have the full access and ability to go to school and are facing cultural, political, and economic barriers that are inhibiting the ability of these kids from entering school. The Pakistani government should take responsibility in solving the country’s education crisis by reforming its education system to make it accessible for Pakistani girls who are not able to go school. Girls represent a strong majority of those who can’t go to school. According to an article by Omar Waraich from Time Magazine, Mosharraf Zaidi, the campaign director of an education advocacy group called â€Å"Alif Ailaan†, stated that 61% of the 25 million Pakistani children who can't go to school are girls. Cultural barriers of male-dominated patriarchy, inherited from the era of British colonialism and traditional Indian culture as according to Latif, are one of the factors that prevent girls from going to sch... ...?" Education Economics 17.3 (2009): 329-54. Web. 9  Dec.  2013. Callum, Christine, Zeba Sathar, and Minhaj ul Haque. "Is Mobility the Missing Link in Improving Girls' Schooling in Pakistan?" Asian Population Studies 8.1 (2012): 5-22. Web. 9  Dec.  2013. Ghuman, Sharon, and Cynthia Lloyd. "Teacher Absence as a Factor in Gender Inequalities in Access to Primary Schooling in Rural Pakistan." Comparative Education Review 54.4 (2010): 539-54. Web. 9  Dec.  2013. Kingston, Anne. "Teen Idol." Maclean's 126.48 (2013): 65-6. Web. 9  Dec.  2013. Latif, Amna. "A Critical Analysis of School Enrollment and Literacy Rates of Girls and Women in Pakistan." Educational Studies 45.5 (2009): 424-39. Web. 9  Dec.  2013. Waraich, Omar. "‘There Are Thousands of Malalas’: What Pakistan’s Teenage Activist Has Already Won." TIME.com. Time Magazine, 11  Oct.  2013. Web. 9  Dec.  2013.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Germany was to blame for the outbreak of the First World War Essay

Germany was to blame for the outbreak of the First World War do you agree? I do not agree fully that the Germans were to blame for the outbreak of war. German intentions were not to start a war, however there are a few events where they unintentionally helped to escalate the situation. There is no doubt that they did help to escalate the situation between Serbia and Austro Hungary. In this essay I will be arguing that Germans did not cause the outbreak of the war. I will be doing this by discussing the blank cheque, the Schlieffen plan, the September programme, the actions of the Kaiser and the actions of Bethmann Hollweg. Many historians argue that because Germany pre-planed for war that when the chance of war arose they obviously provoked it. The evidence for this argument is the Schlieffen plan, it was a military strategy devised in 1882 as a means of coping with a two front war. Some people argue that the Schlieffen plan is the first traceable reason why the war started. However this is hardly true the Schlieffen plan was drawn up because of the increasing pressure Germany was under because of the triple Entente. Germany was after all geographically in bad position on one side they had France and on the other Russia, to make this situation worse France and Russia were allied. Therefore it is not surprising that a plan was created in case a war with the both countries was to occur. A war such as this would have to be fought on two fronts so to be able to fight a war like this on side would have to be disabled quickly. The German’s plans to get to Paris in 6 weeks is seen to be an aggressive tactic that is why some people see the Schlieffen plan as a plan to expand Germany if war was to break out. It is clear this is not the case, the Schlieffen plan was a defensive strategy designed to help Germany to come with a war on two fronts. The Schlieffen plan can hardly be seen as the Germans planning for war because other nations had simial plans such as Russia who had to stick to their plans so completely that hey had to declare war on Germany. An argument has been put forward that Germany declaring war on France is proof that the Schlieffen plan was a form of expansion for Germany and that that it was not a defensive plan. However this is hardly true, Germany declared war on France because Russia had declared war on them and Russia and France were allies. So to Germany I was natural that France would join the war because of the alliance system. Russia also did the same when the Tsar was told that he could not mobilise against Austria alone because the plans were for a war with Austria and Russia. The September programme drawn up by the chancellor of Germany, Bethmann Hollweg is seen as another piece of evidence suggesting that Germany had planned the war. The September programme was a document that set out Germany’s war aims, including a list of territorial acquisitions. This is seen to be incriminating because it was written so soon after war broke out. However Bethmann Hollweg was under a lot of pressure from military who needed to know their objectives. It should also be considered that the German army had been mobilised for a few months so plans for the army had to be drawn up. Some people argue that because the September programme was released so quickly that these objectives must have been premeditated. This is not completely true, it was important for the germens to think quickly what they were going to have to achieve in the war after all they were fighting on two fronts. Some of the objective might have been premeditated but these were probably defensive ones thought up long ago. It is clear to see that Bethmann Hollweg was caught between the Kaiser and Moltke. Bethmann Hollweg’s behaviour is often criticized during the July crisis. It is Bethmann Hollweg’s actions that are used as the argument against him. However what he did can be seen as a gamble that went horribly wrong. Bethmann was not consulted on the blank cheque but did back it. Some people argue that Bethmann wanted to manipulate Russia into mobilising against Germany so they didn’t look as if they started the war. This is untrue because instead Bethmann thought that he could keep the Balkan war localized. The evidence for this argument is that Bethmann thought that Russia would not help Serbia if a war happened because the Tsar would not lend his support to royal assassins. Bethmann also felt that Russia was not military or financially ready for a war. Germany’s mobilisation against Russia was only meant to deter Russia from war not to provoke them into war that is where Bethmann’s gamble failed. The blank cheque is seen as confirming Germany’s guilt in starting the First World War. The blank cheque is another example of a mistake made by Germany. The Kaiser gave unconditional support to Austria, this was done because Germany felt isolated by the triple entente and wanted to make it clear to Austria that their alliance was strong. However as professor Rohl argues the Kaiser was a very unstable man. There is a lot of evidence to support this argument such as when the Kaiser decided to change is mind about the blank cheque but then was convinced by his wife to â€Å"be a man†. The Kaiser was heavily influenced by others and there are many examples, such as the first Moroccan crisis where he was pushed by Bulow and Holstein into provoking the French. The blank cheque is greatly misunderstood the vague phasing used is open to interpretation. The historian Gerhard Ritter argues â€Å"that Germany sought to deter Russia from war, not to provoke conflict with her†. The blank cheque like the September programme is seen as evidence that Germany had wanted a war for some time but really they have both been misinterpreted. The real nation that was to blame for the outbreak of war was Austro-Hungary who even after finding no evidence that linked the assassins to any terror groups in Serbia and after Serbia agreed to their ultimatum still invaded their country. This is really the behaviour of a nation with war on their agenda. Austro-Hungary it can be said had to avenge the death of Franz Ferdinand. Russia too could have avoided war but much like the Kaiser the Tsar kept on changing his mind. In conclusion from the evidence above it can be seen that everyone muddled into war and that no one power is to blame. The September programme and the Schlieffen plan which are seen to highlight German guilt, do not and are actually defensive precautions not premeditated plans for war. Bethmann Hollweg and the Kaiser both were trying to achieve the same objective but were both communicating very well. The nations involved in the July crisis can be blamed for standing by their alliances instead of sorting out the situation. Germany did contribute to the mix up between nations in the Balkans and for inciting Austro-Hungary however they are not ultimately to blame for the outbreak of war.

Monday, January 6, 2020

The Religions Of Shinto And Buddhism - 1079 Words

The two religions that are located in Japan are Shinto and Buddhism. The two religions in japan are extraordinarily unalike, while Shintoism believes that every living thing including rocks and sounds contain some type of god in them, and Buddhism is concerned with the soul and afterlife that happens in Buddhism. The religions differ very much from each other with little similarities. Buddhism and Shintoism differ in one using shrines while the other has temples, the two both have religious ceremonies, and one believes in the afterlife while the other does not. Shinto was originated in Japan and formed in five hundred BCE. Shinto â€Å"the way of the Kami† is the religion of Japan that was first used in the 6th century. Shinto has no founder, no sacred texts and no formalized system. Shinto is uniquely Japanese, and believes in a god named Kami, the Shinto believe that Kami exists both as spiritual beings but as well as in nature. The Kami is not like Western Religions, becaus e the Kami is not perceived as an all-powerful god, but as a creative force. Buddhism was formed in the 5th century B.C.E. in northern India. The religion was started by a man named Siddhartha Gautama, who is also referred to as the Buddha or the enlightened one. The way this man started the religion was by training his meditation for six years, and then once he felt he was close to â€Å"full enlightenment† he went into meditation and vowed not to come out until he reached full enlightenment. Buddha thenShow MoreRelatedThe Religions : Buddhism And Shinto1678 Words   |  7 Pagesformed. Religion is no exception; there have been many instances where religions have influenced each other and blossomed due to new ideas being presented. A good example of this the relationship between the two religions: Buddhism and Shinto. Buddhism was brought into Japan during the early 6th century from Korea, and was later institutionalized as the state religion in the late 6th century by Prin ce ShÃ… toku. The Prince was a great patron of Buddhism and by having made it the state religion, it wouldRead MoreHinduism, Buddhism, and Shinto1049 Words   |  5 PagesHinduism, Buddhism and Shinto, while vast in differences there is much to learn about these three religions similarities as well. Some facts and history of Hinduism include, Hinduism (being the oldest of the three) is dated back in pre-history before 10000 BC even believed to predate the Indus River Valley Civilization! The Vedas (the holy text of Hinduism) is the foundation for Indian culture and also the basic belief system of Hinduism. The basic belief structure of Hinduism is as follows, theRead MoreJapanese Scholars View of the Shinto Religion1110 Words   |  4 PagesThe Shinto religion is seen in two different lights by Japanese scholars. One is the view that the role of Shinto in Japanese history as a periphery religion and reliant on Buddhist ideals for its success. The other is that Shinto may seem to be a very primitive religion, but it has also maintained a long history of rituals and institutions that represent Japanese culture and its ability to absorb other religions and cultures. Both arguments are relatively strong, however I argue that ModernizationRead MoreEssay on Religions and Japanese Culture597 Words   |  3 PagesReligions and Japanese Culture Many religions are popular within the Japanese culture. Two of the most influential religions, Shinto and Buddhism that help shaped a lot of Japanese values are Shinto and Buddhism, played a large role in shaping Japanese values. Numerous similarities and differences run between these two religions; nonetheless, the Japanese often believe in more than one religion at the same time. This is possible due to the polytheistic nature of most popular religions inRead MoreEssay on Shintoism and Buddhism1210 Words   |  5 PagesShintoism and Buddhism The Japanese religions, including Shintosim and Buddhism, are rich and complex, and it contains many condradictory trends which may puzzle a Westerner. In the center of the tradition is Shinto, the natural religion of Japan. Also in the center is Buddhism, the Indian religion that was brought to Japan in the sixth century from Korea and China. Throughout the history of Japan, it has been these two religions that have contributed most to the Japanese understandingRead MoreEssay on Shintoism: Strengths and Weaknesses1117 Words   |  5 PagesThe Japanese culture has been greatly influenced by its religions, and one of the most influential religions has been Shintoism. Shintoism has been dated back to 500BC, when the descendants of the sun goddess, Amaterasu-OmiKami, worshiped the gods and goddesses of Japan. Shinto means way of the gods and that represents what people who practice Shintoism believe in. Shintoism is a religion based on Japanese mythology, which is centered on a mal e god, Izanagi, and a female goddess, Izanami. TheseRead MoreThe Night Watches Of The Buddha1747 Words   |  7 PagesQuestion 2 Analyze the night Watches of the Buddha, and explain how the content was developed in the Mahayana Sutras. Mahayana Buddhism is originated in the first century C.E. and focuses on new concern for liberation through the assistance of a bodhisattva (Voorst ). Also, Mahayana Buddhism requires a body of scripture, and so began the Mahayana Canon (Voorst ). Mahayana Sutras is one of section of the Mahayana Canon, which focuses on the denial of the reality of existence and nonexistenceRead MoreHealth Care Provider and Faith Diversity1394 Words   |  6 Pagesvery popular religions this writer will discuss the spiritual perspective on healing, the critical components of healing, and what is important to people of a particular faith when cared for by health care providers. The three religions that will be discussed are Sikhism, Shintoism, and Buddhism. This writer will also compare these faiths to the Christian philosophy of faith and healing. Health Care Provider and Faith Diversity The first of three religions that will beRead MoreSimilarities Between Shinto And Shinto Religion933 Words   |  4 PagesOf the many religions in the world, none are quite as unique as Shintoism. Shinto, meaning â€Å"the way of the kami†, is the indigenous religion of Japan. It is believed to have existed since the 6th century B.C.E. However, there is no documented origin nor is there an established founder. At the center of the Shinto religion is devotion toward various kami and the rituals performed to please them. It does not attempt to explain existence or the afterlife. Instead, Shintoism focuses on interactions withRead MoreShinto - A Japanese Religion Essay1687 Words   |  7 PagesShinto: A Japanese Religion Uncovering the religious significance and practices of Japanese Shinto As an ancient religion of Japan, Shinto was originally a combination of nature worship, divination techniques, and shamanism. Meaning the way of the Gods, the origins of Shinto are not apparent in comparison to other religions, especially other Asian religions and beliefs. With no obvious founder, as well as original written scriptures and authentic laws, a number of theories exist about the